French Nuclear Power Stations

belleville france
In 1945 the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) was Founded. Three years later the first French Uranium mine, Puy Henriette, was officially opened.

Commune: Belleville-sur-Loire

bugey france
Between 1937 and 1954 the CEA extracted uranium from the Vatovory mine near Vinaninkarena Madagascar. In 2008 a monitoring survey of the abandoned mine site showed gamma radiation doses 13 times that of "normal" permissable exposure levels.

Commune: Saint Vulbas

chooz france
United Kingdon based company Rio Tinto obtained the rights to Namib Desert based Rossing deposit in 1966. Commercial uranium mining began in 1976 and continues today. Over the years many tons of uranium have been supplied to France through Rio Tinto and Rosssing.

Commune: Chooz

chinon france
The French company COGEMA's subsidiary COMUF producted 28,000 tonnes of Uranium at Mounana, Gabon from 1961 until the sites closure in 1999. This ore was milled and sent up through the Democratic Repubic of the Congo before boarding cargo ships for its shipment to France for enrichment and power production.

Commune: Chinon

civaux france
After Niger was granted independence from France in 1960, Contracts were created to grant France the exclusive rights to mining and mineral exploitation in Niger. Excavation began near the Air Mountains in 1971 with two mines near the town of Arlit. Since mining has begun over 100,000 tons of uranium have been mined with France importing up to 50% of its uranium supply from Niger.

Commune: Civaux

cruas france
France has maintained a military presence in Gabon and Niger to various extents since the 1960s. In more recent times France has used its military presence in Niger in the form of advisement to Niger's armed forces, as well as to protect its uranium investment in the country from terrorist threat.

Commune: Cruas

dampierre france
Data collected by the Observatory of Economic Complexity showed that, beginning in 1973, Nigers largest import to France has been uranium. 2017 was the last year this data was collected and it showed $289M USD export value for the year. Prior to 1973 green groundnuts were Niger's largest export to France.

Commune: Dampierre

fessenheim france
While the French multinational group Areva (now Orano) was overseeing uranium mining at the Arlit mines in Niger it was operating at a minimal tax which is questionable due toe the Extractive Industries Transparancy Initiative (EITI). It is also questionable how uranium accounts for 70% of Nigers exports but contributes only 5.8 percent to its GDP.

Commune: Fessenheim

flamanville france
A 2018 statistical survey of the EU's 2016 Nuclear energy landscape done by Eurostat showed that France accounted for 48% of the European Union's gross nuclear energy output. Producing 403,195GWh of electricty through the use of nuclear reactors that year.

Commune: flamanville

golfech france
European Energy Insight has reported that between January 1st, 2019 and November 30th, 2019 France was Europe's largest exporter of electricity due in large part to its large volume of nuclear power generation. A large portion of the electricity exported was sent to the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and Germany over this period of time.

Commune: Golfech

gravelines france
The Commission for Independent Research and Information on Radioactivity (CRIIRAD) is a french NGO specializing in assessing the impact that radioactive releases from nuclear installations might have on the environment and populations around the installations. CRIIRAD has taken on projects internationally as well as in France.

Commune: Gravelines

nogent france
Reprocessing used nuclear fuel has been a policy in France for decades. This process allows for for still fissile material within the used fuel to be extracted and re-enriched so that it can enter the fuel chain once again. Issues with security, ecnvironmental and worker saftey, and cost have caused the process to be controversial.

Commune: Nogent

paluel france
High-level nuclear waste that is not able to be reprocessed from reactors is stored underground at the La Hague fuel reprocessing site. This waste is stored in intermediate stainless steel containers until a permanent repository is finished in the mid 2020s.

Commune: Paluel

penly france
In September 2015, AREVA was charged in Narbonne for disregard of environmental regulations established to prevent health and environmenal damage. Over the course of six years regulations regarding preventaion of pollution of air, water, and soil were ignored and unsafe practices were taken when handling hazardous products regularly.

Commune: Penly

saint alban france
The entangled nature between France and countries like Niger is made even more complicated through the connection of corporations that mine uranium in Africa and then oversee the enrichment process in France. The corporations evade regulations and show innate lack of concern over the environment and of the people who work in the nuclear power industry.

Commune: Saint Alban

marcoule france
Since the beginnings of the French nuclear industry there has been a metabolic rift (as defined be John Bellamy Foster in reference to Marx's notion of the "irreparable rift in the interdependent process of social metabolism") in uranium extraction and consumption.

Commune: Marcoule

saint laurent france
France has extracted uranium from countries that receive none of the benefits of its material use. Most obviously that countries like Niger and Namibia are not able to access any of the electricity that is created through the use of their extracted ore.

Commune: Saint Laurent

tricastin france
Anthropologist Gabrielle Hecht has called uranium a technopolitical entity. This entity has allowed France to maintain a level of energy independence for decades but it has also created messy bifurcations within the countries whose resources France depends on.

Commune: Tricastin

cattenom france
The word Francafrique describes France's sphere of influence over formerly colonized African nations. this influence will remain in the countries that France uses for its power far past the last day of its mining operations. This influence will take the form of long term health effects, toxic pools of residue left over from mining operations, and scars left on the Earth which will serve as reminders of what has happened to that land.

Commune: Cattenom

African Mining Locations

Anosy Madagascar
The southeastern region of Madagascar has been mined for decades. Accusations of poor labor conditions, environmental devastation, and greater ecological damages are still being dealt with.
Anosy Madagascar
Most recently, Rio Tinto (the British owned Uranium mining company and frequent importer to France) has been accused of polluting water sources in the southeastern region of the Country with radioactive materials.

Mine: Ambindandrakemba Mine
Location: Anosy Madagascar
Years Active: 1958 - 1963

Anosy Madagascar
Rossing Uranium mine, located on the western edge of central Namibia is the longest running active open pit uranium mine on Earth. As long as the mine has been active, workers have complained of health issues, poor working conditions, and disparities between workers and supervisors.
Anosy Madagascar
In 2012 CRIIRAD laboratory found elevated radiation levels from the mine tailings had travelled via wind and river to various regional locations. Hazards and safety issues such as this continue to happen at Rossing.

Mine: Rossing Uranium Mine
Location: Arandis Namibia
Years Active: 1976 - Present

Mounana Gabon
For decades the French company COMUF extracted uranium ore in Mounana gabon. This ore was then milled at the site. For over a decade the radioactive mill tailings were released into a creek next to the site, over 2 million tonnes in total. This is only a small portion of the damage done to the region over time.
Anosy Madagascar
Mill tailings were also dumped in a former open pit mine and left uncovered, with no protective measures for years. This tailing pit was not marked as a danger in any way and children would even play in it.

Mine: Mounana Uranium Mine
Location: Mounana Gabon
Years Active: 1959 - 1999

Anosy Madagascar
The closest metropolitan area to Mounana mine is the city of Franceville. The city's economy and population began growing largely at the beginning of uranium mining at Mounana. But the jobs and benefits that arose from the uranium mining also left many people with illness and health defects.
Anosy Madagascar
The towns built around the Mounana mine were home to workers from the region and many from neighboring areas. It was not until French NGOs came to do radiation testing in the early 2000s, some years after the mine had ceased operations, that something many people had speculated about for years was proven. The work towns around the mine were built using mill tailings and had radioactive levels far beyond anything allowable.

Commune: Franceville
Location: Gabon
Years Founded: 1980

Anosy Madagascar
Niger provides one in three French households with power but 90% of Niger is without electricity. Nigerien activist Ali Idrissa believes that natural resources should be managed in the interest of and for the benefit of the people of Niger. He is part of small groups trying to take on the large international companies exploiting the country's resources.
Anosy Madagascar
In a similar vein as Gabon and Madagascar, Niger has been dealing with the ramifications of uranium mining by way of environmental and health concerns. The town of Arlit has near multiple large uranium operations has seen cases of death and unusual health concerns.

Mine: Somair uranium mine
Location: Arlit Niger
Years Active: 1969 - Present

Anosy Madagascar
Before being dissolved the governing uranium corporation dealing with French interest in Niger, Areva, had declared that in 40 years of mining operations there had not been a single case of mining related illness or death reported. This response contradicts measurements and actions taken by NGOs and local activists.
Anosy Madagascar

Mine: Azelik Uranium Deposit
Location: Azelik Niger
Years Active: Unknown - Present

Anosy Madagascar
The routes uranium takes when being transported from Niger to France are varied and purposely ambiguous. Ports in Benin and France are major sites of loading and unloading of unmarked containers of yellowcake. Spills while transporting uranium are some of the only ways in which the public becomes aware of the fact that the material is being moved through metropolitan areas.
Anosy Madagascar

Mine: Tchirozerine Uranium Mine
Location: Tchirozerine Niger
Years Active: 2007 - Present